# Physical measurements

2022/2023
Programme:
Physics, First Cycle
Orientation:
Educational Physics
Year:
3 year
Semester:
first
Kind:
mandatory
ECTS:
6
Language:
slovenian
Lecturers:
Hours per week – 1. semester:
Lectures
3
Seminar
0
Tutorial
2
Lab
0
Prerequisites

Enrollment in year 3.

Passed problem-solving examination is a prerequisite for the theoretical part of the examination.

Content (Syllabus outline)

Introduction. Physical quantities defined by measurement procedure, units, measurements in animal world (chameleon, bat, owl,…), working definition of measurement and measurement system.

Optimal feedback. Systematic and random errors, normal distribution, combining of measurements with different uncertainty, measurement of state variables of a system,
discrete optimal filter for linear systems – Kalman filter, transition to continuous formulation, white noise, thermal noise of a resistor, notion of spectral density.

Simplification of optimal feedback. Systems of first, second and higher orders, transfer function, response of a system to standard inputs, Bode plots. Measurement with response to periodic excitation of a system and phase sensitive detection, phase locked loop, locking on resonance peak and cesium clock, methods of least squares, compensation measurement systems.

Impact of measurement on the system. Input and output impedance, Thevenin's theorem, instrumentation amplifier, transmission of signals by cables, characteristic impedance.

Measurement and statistics. Testing of hypotheses, statistics T, chi-square, F, U, interval estimation of parameters, goodness-of-fit tests – Pearson's chi-square, test of Kolmogorov.

Measurements of important quantities. Measurement of frequency and time, displacements, temperature, sound, force, acceleration, angular velocity.

A. Likar, Osnove fizikalnih merjenj in merilnih sistemov, DMFA, Izbrana poglavja iz fizike 26, 2011
A. Likar, D. Cvetko, G. Planinšič, Zgledi iz fizikalnih merjenj, DMFA, Izbrana poglavja iz fizike 43, 2011
P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The art of electronics, 2nd (3rd) ed., Cambridge University Press, 1990 (2013)
E. O. Doebelin, Measurement systems, 5th ed. , McGrow-Hill, 2004

Objectives and competences

The subject offers basic knowledge physicist needs working in development or research laboratory. The emphasis is on proper merge of measured data with dynamical low which is known for the measured system to a certain degree. Diverse measurement practices are only special cases of this basic scheme.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: The syllabus gives understanding on how measurement systems should be built from the first principles which enables the students for autonomous planning of such systems.
Application: Reliable measurement is one of the basic skills of a physicist.
Reflection: Expert in measurement science applies the bottom-up approach to tackle a specific problem. This is by far the best approach to demanding technical challenges.
Transferable skills: Skillful handling of any data can be rewarding in many areas outside physics.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, tutorials, homework and consultations.

Assessment

2 written tests (mid-term and end-term) applied towards the problem-solving examination, problem-solving examination
Theoretical examination
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references
1. SCHIROS, Theanne, KLADNIK, Gregor, CVETKO, Dean. Donor-acceptor shape
matching drives performance in photovoltaics. Adv. energy mater. (Print),
2013, vol. 3, iss. 7, str. 894-902, doi: 10.1002/aenm.201201125 [COBISS-SI-ID
2547556]
2. KLADNIK, Gregor, CVETKO, Dean, BATRA, Arunabh, DELL'ANGELA, Martina,
COSSARO, Albano, KAMENETSKA, Maria, VENKATARAMAN, Latha, MORGANTE,
Alberto. Ultrafast charge transfer through noncovalent AuN interactions in
molecular systems. The journal of physical chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and
interfaces, [in press] 2013, 16 str., doi: 10.1021/jp405229b [COBISS-SI-ID
26934567]
3. BATRA, Arunabh, KLADNIK, Gregor, VÁZQUEZ, Héctor, MEISNER, Jeffrey S.,
FLOREANO, Luca, NUCKOLLS, Colin, CVETKO, Dean, MORGANTE, Alberto,
VENKATARAMAN, Latha. Quantifying through-space charge transfer dynamics
in TT-coupled molecular systems. Nature communications, 2012, vol. 3, str.
1086-1-1086-7, doi: 10.1038/ncomms2083 [COBISS-SI-ID 26125351]
4. COSSARO, Albano, CVETKO, Dean, FLOREANO, Luca. Amino-carboxylic
recognition on surfaces : from 2D to 2D + 1 nano-architectures. PCCP. Phys.
chem. chem. phys. (Print), 2012, vol. 14, issue 38, str. 13154-13162, doi:
10.1039/C2CP41790A [COBISS-SI-ID 26052903]
5. COSSARO, Albano, PUPPIN, Michele, CVETKO, Dean, KLADNIK, Gregor,
VERDINI, Alberto, CORENO, Marcello, SIMONE, Monica de, FLOREANO, Luca,
MORGANTE, Alberto. Tailoring SAM-on-SAM formation. J. phys. chem. lett., vol.
2, no. 24, str. 3124-3129, doi: 10.1021/jz201415k [COBISS-SI-ID 25431335]