Measurement of ionizing radiation

Physics, First Cycle
Educational Physics
3 year

Prof. Dr. Boštjan Golob

Hours per week – 2. semester:

Enrollment in year 3.

Passed problem-solving examination is a prerequisite for the theoretical part of the examination.

Content (Syllabus outline)

Accelerator systems. Ion sources, review of accelerators, transport of charged particles.

Radioactivity. Basic notions (activity, decay time, statistics, alpha, beta and gamma radiation, isotopes, radioactive series), sources of radiation (natural and man-made isotopes, cosmic radiation).

Interaction of radiation with matter. Heavy charged particles, light particles, photons, neutrons.

Detectors. Shockley-Ramo theorem, ionization chambers, proportional counters, multi-wire proportional counters, drift chambers, Geiger-Mueller counter, semiconductor detectors, scintillation detectors and photomultipliers.

Particle identification. Detectors of energy loss, time-of-flight, Cerenkov detectors.

Radiation dosimetry. Biological effects of radiation, deterministic and stochastic radiation effects, exposition dose, absorbed dose, equivalent and effective dose.

Application. Activities in Slovenia, visit of our national laboratory (MIC - Institute J. Stefan).


F. Cvelbar, Merjenje ionizirajočega sevanja, rokopis, 1998.
W.R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
Claus Grupen, Particle Detectors, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, 4th ed., J. Wiley, New York, 2010.

Objectives and competences

The purpose of the subject is to give basic knowledge of physical principles which concern ionizing radiation. It is a prerequisite for further study of experimental nuclear and particle physics and medical diagnostics and therapy.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: The syllabus gives basic understanding on measurement od ionizing radiation and interpretation of collected data.
Application: Education covered by this subject is a necessity for everyone working in laboratories dealing with any kind of radioactive sources.
Reflection: Expert in measurement science applies the bottom-up approach to tackle a specific problem. This is by far the best approach to demanding technical challenges.
Transferable skills: Skillful handling of complex data can be rewarding in many areas outside nuclear and particle physics.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, tutorials, homework and consultations.


2 written tests (mid-term and end-term) applied towards the problem-solving examination, problem-solving examination
Theoretical examination
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references
  1. Belle Collaboration, LIN, S.-W., BITENC, Urban, BRAČKO, Marko, FRATINA,
    Saša, GOLOB, Boštjan, KORPAR, Samo, KRIŽAN, Peter, PESTOTNIK, Rok,
    STANIČ, Samo, STARIČ, Marko, ZUPANC, Anže. Difference in direct chargeparity
    violation between charged and neutral B meson decays. Nature (Lond.),
    2008, vol. 452, str. 332-335 [COBISS-SI-ID 21553703], [JCR, WoS do 13. 2.
    2013: št. citatov (TC): 54, čistih citatov (CI): 48, normirano št. čistih citatov
    (NC): 18, Scopus do 20. 2. 2013: št. citatov (TC): 68, čistih citatov (CI): 62,
    normirano št. čistih citatov (NC): 92]
  2. Belle Collaboration, STARIČ, Marko, GOLOB, Boštjan, BITENC, Urban,
    BRAČKO, Marko, FRATINA, Saša, GORIŠEK, Andrej, KORPAR, Samo, KRIŽAN,
    Peter, PESTOTNIK, Rok, STANIČ, Samo, ZUPANC, Anže. Evidence for D[sup]0 -
    (D[bar])[sup]0 mixing. Phys. rev. lett., 2007, vol. 98, no. 21, str. 211803-1-
    211803-6, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.211803 [COBISS-SI-ID 20795943],
    [JCR, WoS do 13. 2. 2013: št. citatov (TC): 109, čistih citatov (CI): 98, normirano
    št. čistih citatov (NC): 39, Scopus do 15. 1. 2013: št. citatov (TC): 131, čistih
    citatov (CI): 123, normirano št. čistih citatov (NC): 49]
  3. DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, GOLOB, Boštjan, SERŠA, Igor. Naloge iz fizike za
    študente tehniških fakultet, (Zbirka izbranih poglavij iz fizike, 38). 2. natis.
    Ljubljana: DMFA - založništvo, 2008. 66 str., ilustr. ISBN 978-961-212-143-3.
    [COBISS-SI-ID 238243072]
  4. Belle Collaboration, KO, B. R., BRAČKO, Marko, GOLOB, Boštjan, KORPAR,
    Samo, KRIŽAN, Peter, PESTOTNIK, Rok, PETRIČ, Marko, SMERKOL, Peter,
    STANIČ, Samo, STARIČ, Marko, ZUPANC, Anže. Evidence for CP violation in the
    decay D[sup]+ [to] K[sup]0[sub]S [pi][sup]+. Phys. rev. lett., 2012, vol. 109,
    no. 2, str. 021601-1-021601-6, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.021601.
    [COBISS-SI-ID 25990183], [JCR, WoS do 7. 11. 2012: št. citatov (TC): 1, čistih
    citatov (CI): 1, normirano št. čistih citatov (NC): 0, Scopus do 16. 1. 2013: št.
    citatov (TC): 1, čistih citatov (CI): 1, normirano št. čistih citatov (NC): 0]
  5. GOLOB, Boštjan. Kolokvijske naloge iz Fizike jedra in osnovnih delcev z
    rešitvami. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za matematiko in fiziko, Oddelek za fiziko, 2010.
    1 el. optični disk (CD-ROM) [COBISS-SI-ID 2273636]