Medical Physics

Techniques of Measurement in Physics, First Cycle
3 year
Course director:
Lecturer (contact person):
Hours per week – 2. semester:

Regular admission to the programme.

Content (Syllabus outline)

Physics of the living matter: an introduction to medical physics (bioelements, homeostasis, feedback loops in living matter), basics of biochemistry (chemical bonding, hydrogen bonding, water molecule, isomerism, biomolecules, proteins, DNA, lipids), basic physiology concepts (membrane, ions, membrane potential), action potential of nerve cells (morphology of the action potential, Hodgkin-Huxley model of the membrane), cardiac muscle fiber (action potential, current dipole), heart muscle (syncytium). Imaging methods in medical physics: electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, x-ray (ionizing radiation, sources of X-rays, X-rays interaction with living matter, examples of X-ray images), the basic principles of X-ray tomography, fundamentals of dosimetry (interaction of ionizing radiation with living tissues, dose, protection against radiation), magnetic resonance imaging (physical basis, excitation and relaxation of nuclei, sequences, basic elements of imaging, use of gradients, k-space), ultrasonic imaging (physical basis, acoustic impedance, attenuation, warp imaging, Doppler imaging), imaging in nuclear medicine (concept of radiopharmaceutical, gamma radiation sources, an overview of tomographic methods - SPECT, PET, security imaging). Safety at work, which include the patient (the part that is connected to the medical physics)

  1. C. Guy, D. Fytche, An Introducition to the Principles of Medical Imaging. Imperial College Press, 2005

  2. R. Plonsey, R. Barr, Bioelectricity - A quantitative approach. Springer, 2007

  3. R.M. Berne, M.N. Levy, Physiolog, 4th ed. Elsevier, 2007

  4. Lehninger, Principles of biochemistry. 4th ed. W. H. Freeman, 2004

  5. Atkins’ Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. Oxford University Press, 2008

  6. R. Hren, Zapiski predavanj iz Medicinske fizike . Dosegljivo na spletnem naslovu

  7. M. Milanič, Zapiski vaj iz Medicinske fizike . Dosegljivo na spletnem naslovu:

Objectives and competences

Objectives: To review the application of physics in medicine and biomedical sciences. Introduction to basics of physics of living matter (biochemistry, physical chemistry and physiology). Getting to know the basic methods of imaging in medical physics. Getting to know the conceptual elements of designing and solving interdisciplinary scientific and technical problems.


  • Ability to recognize and solve physical problems in biomedical sciences during routine work;
  • Knowledge of the most important fields of physics;
  • Ability to search the scientific literature, to prepare synthesis of data, to gather public speaking skills;
  • Awareness of ethical principles in physics in conjunction with medicine.
Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: Knowledge of basic concepts and laws of physics of living matter. Understanding the basics of imaging techniques in medicine (the link between the basic laws and technological solutions). Conceptual understanding of data processing in medical physics.

Application: Using physical principles and laws in complex systems. The application of technological solutions resting on simplifications / approximations.

Reflection: interdisciplinary understanding of the processes in nature and technology

Transferable skills: Gathering skills of domestic and foreign literature search. Preparing synthesis of data and the ability to use elements of public speaking.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, exercises, individual assignments, homework


»Exercise« rating: individual assignment (report, powerpoint presentation, oral delivery).
»Exam« rating: written exam.
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references

[1] Milanič M, Jazbinšek V, MacLeod RS, Brooks DH, Hren R. Assessment of regularization techniques for electrocardiographic imaging. J Electrocardiol. 2014; 47:20-28.
[2] ten Tusscher KH, Mourad A, Nash MP, Clayton RH, Bradley CP, Paterson DJ, Hren R, Hayward M, Panfilov AV, Taggart P. Organization of ventricular fibrillation in the human heart: experiments and models. Exp Physiol. 2009; 94:553-562.
[3] Keldermann RH, ten Tusscher KH, Nash MP, Bradley CP, Hren R, Taggart P, Panfilov AV. A computational study of mother rotor VF in the human ventricles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009; 296:H370-379.
[4] Keldermann RH, ten Tusscher KH, Nash MP, Hren R, Taggart P, Panfilov AV. Effect of het-erogeneous APD restitution on VF organization in a model of the human ventricles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008; 294:H764-774.
[5] ten Tusscher KH, Hren R, Panfilov AV. Organization of ventricular fibrillation in the human heart. Circ Res. 2007; 22;100:e87-101.
[6] ten Tusscher KH, Bernus O, Hren R, Panfilov AV. Comparison of electrophysiological models for human ventricular cells and tissues. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006; 90:326-345.
[7] Hren R, Horácek BM. The effect of nontransmural necroses on epicardial potential maps during paced activation: a simulation study. Comput Biol Med. 2003; 33:251-258.
[8] Jazbinsek V, Hren R, Stroink G, Horácek BM, Trontelj Z. Value and limitations of an inverse solution for two equivalent dipoles in localising dual accessory pathways. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2003; 41:133-140.
[9] Trobec R, Gersak B, Hren R. Body surface mapping after partial left ventriculotomy. Heart Surg Forum. 2002; 5:187-192.
[10] Hren R, Stroink G. Noninvasive characterisation of multiple ventricular events using electro-cardiographic imaging. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2001; 39:447-454.
[11] Samarin S, Hren R, Trobec R, Avbelj V, Gersak B. Spatial resolution of epicardial pace map-ping using body surface potentials. Pflugers Arch. 2000; 440(5 Suppl):R123-125.
[12] Hren R, Punske BB, Stroink G. Assessment of spatial resolution of pace mapping when using body surface potentials. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1999; 37:477-481.
[13] Hren R. Localization of intramural necrotic regions using electrocardiographic imaging. J Electrocardiol. 1999;32 Suppl:140-149.
[14] Hren R, Steinhoff U, Gessner C, Endt P, Goedde P, Agrawal R, Oeff M, Lux RL, Trahms L. Value of magnetocardiographic QRST integral maps in the identification of patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1999; 22:1292-1304.
[15] Hren R, Punske BB. A comparison of simulated QRS isointegral maps resulting from pacing at adjacent sites: implications for the spatial resolution of pace mapping using body surface potentials. J Electrocardiol. 1998;31 Suppl:135-144.
[16] Hren R, Nenonen J, Horácek BM. Simulated epicardial potential maps during paced activa-tion reflect myocardial fibrous structure. Ann Biomed Eng. 1998; 26:1022-1035.
[17] Hren R, Stroink G, Horácek BM. Accuracy of single-dipole inverse solution when localising ventricular pre-excitation sites: simulation study. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1998; 36:323-329.
[18] Hren R, Stroink G, Horácek BM. Spatial resolution of body surface potential maps and mag-netic field maps: a simulation study applied to the identification of ventricular pre-excitation sites. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1998; 36:145-157.
[19] Hren R. Value of epicardial potential maps in localizing pre-excitation sites for radiofrequen-cy ablation. A simulation study. Phys Med Biol. 1998; 43:1449-1468.
[20] Hren R, Horácek BM. Value of simulated body surface potential maps as templates in localizing sites of ectopic activation for radiofrequency ablation. Physiol Meas. 1997; 18:373-400.
[21] Hren R, Zhang X, Stroink G. Comparison between electrocardiographic and magnetocardiographic inverse solutions using the boundary element method. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1996 Mar;34(2):110-114.
[22] Hren R, Stroink G. Application of the surface harmonic expansion for modeling the human torso. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1995; 42:521-524.