Physical measurements

Applied Physisc, First Cycle
3 year
Hours per week – 1. semester:

Passed examination in Physics and Mathematics and Practicums 1 and 2

Content (Syllabus outline)

Introduction. Phisical quantities defined with measurement procedure, units, measurements in animal world (chameleon, bat, owl,…), working definition of measurement and measurement system.

Optimal feedback. Systematic and random errors, normal distribution, combining of measurements with different uncertainty, measurement of state variables of a system,
discrete optimal filter for linear systems – Kalman filter, transition to continuous formulation, white noise, thermal noise of resistor.

Simplification of optimal feedback. Systems of first, second and higher oreders, transfer function, response of a system to standard inputs, Bode plots. Measurement with response to periodic excitation of a system and phase sensitive detection, phase locked loop, locking on resonance peak and caesium clock, methods of least squares, compensation measurement systems.

Impact of measurement on the system. Input and output impedance, Thevenin's theorem, instrumentation amplifier, transmision of signals by cables, characteristic impedance.

Measurement and statistics. Testing of hypoteses, statistics T, chi-square, F, U, interval estimation of parameters, goodness-of-fit tests – Pearson's chi-square, test of Kolmogorov.

Measurements of important quantities. Measurement of frequency and time, displacenents, temperature, sound, force, acceleration, angular velocity.


A. Likar, Osnove fizikalnih merjenj in merilnih sistemov, DMFA,
Izb. pogl. fiz. 26, 2011
A. Likar, D. Cvetko in G. Planinšič, Zgledi iz fizikalnih merjenj, DMFA, Izb. pogl. fiz. 43, 2011

Objectives and competences

The subject offers basic knowledge physicist needs working in development or research laboratory. The emphasis is on proper merge of measured data with dynamical low which is known for the measured system to a certain degree. Diverse measurement practices are only special cases of this basic scheme.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
The syllabus gives understanding on how measurement systems should be built from the first principles which enables the students for autonomous planning of such systems.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, tutorials, homeworks and consultations.


2 written tests (mid-term and end-term) applied towards the problem-solving examination, problem-solving 50%
Theoretical examination 50%
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references

[1] LIKAR, Andrej, LIPOGLAVŠEK, Matej, VENCELJ, Matjaž, VIDMAR, Tim, BARK, R. A., GUEORGUIEVA, E., KOMATI, F. S., LAWRIE, J. J., MALIAGE, S. M., MULLINS, S. M., MURRAY, S. H. T., RAMASHIDZHA, T. Proton capture to continuum states of supBi. Phys. rev. C. Nucl. phys., 2006, vol. 73, str.044609-1-044609-8. [COBISS-SI-ID 19861287]
[2] LIPOGLAVŠEK, Matej, LIKAR, Andrej, VENCELJ, Matjaž, VIDMAR, Tim. High resolution measurement of the supPb(p, [gamma] capture reaction up to E[sub](gamma]=19 MeV. Phys. lett., Sect. B. [Print ed.], 2004, vol. 593, str. 61-65. [COBISS-SI-ID 18465831]
[3] GAJEVIĆ, Jelena, CVETINOVIĆ, Aleksandra, LIKAR, Andrej, LIPOGLAVŠEK, Matej, PELICON, Primož, PETROVIČ, Toni, SÀNCHEZ ORTIZ, Alberto. Electron screening in nickel. The european physical journal. A, Hadrons and nuclei, 2013, vol. 49, no. 6, str. 70-1-70-7, doi: 10.1140/epja/i2013-13070-3. [COBISS-SI-ID 26808615]
[4] LIPOGLAVŠEK, Matej, LIKAR, Andrej, VENCELJ, Matjaž. Breakup of the doubly magic Sn-100 core. Phys. rev. C. Nucl. phys., 2002, vol. 66, str. 011302-1-011302-5. [COBISS-SI-ID 17707047]
[5] RAZPET, Nada, LIKAR, Andrej. Čerenkov radiation through the Hamiltonian approach. Am. j. phys., 2010, vol. 78, iss. 12, str. 1384-1392., doi: 10.1119/1.3483788. [COBISS-SI-ID 15795545]
[6] LIKAR, Andrej, RAZPET, Nada. Towards the Kelvin wake and beyond. Am. j. phys., apr. 2013, vol. 81, no. 4, str. 245-252, ilustr., doi: 10.1119/1.4793510. [COBISS-SI-ID 9605961]