Energy Resources

Applied Physics, First Cycle
3. year

Prof. Nevenka Hrovatin, Assist. Prof. Dr. Matej Pregelj, Assoc. Prof. Matej Švigelj, Prof. Jelena Zorić

Hours per week – 1. semester:

Enrollment in the year of study.
Completed seminar assignment is a condition for taking the oral exam.

Content (Syllabus outline)

Introduction. Historical overview of energy consumption, energy consumption by country, energy consumption trends by country.
Energy sources. Fossil fuels (gas, oil, coal); nuclear fuels; origin of fossil and nuclear fuels; geographical overview of energy reserves; renewable energy sources (hydro, biomass, solar, wind); geothermal, tidal; constraints and conditions for extraction of energy sources.
Energy conversion and transmission. Main forms of energy needed by mankind (food, heating, propulsion, electricity); energy conversions (human metabolism, combustion, turbine, generator, photoeffect, electrochemical processes, fission, fusion); overview of propulsion engines (steam, internal combustion, jet, rocket); efficiencies, wear and tear; transport of fossil fuels, transfer of electricity, transfer of thermal energy, losses.
Energy storage. Electrostatic storage (capacitors, supercapacitors), electrochemical storage (batteries, accumulators), potential energy (water pumping, mechanical weights), chemical storage (hydrogen, synthetic fuel), biological storage (glycogen).
Environmental impact. Surface efficiency for each type of energy, by-products of energy conversions, historical overview of climate evolution.
Energy sectors and the importance of energy as a production source. Review and trends in the world, EU and Slovenia.
Restructuring of energy sectors in the light of reforms. Market structure, organisation and ownership; liberalisation and regulation of energy markets;
specifics of business operations and new energy industry business strategies.
Analysis of selected energy sectors in the EU and the world. World oil market. Electricity industry. Natural gas industry.
Analysis of electricity markets. Supply and demand;
wholesale market; retail market; balancing market; electricity trading and risk management.
Environmental problems in the energy sector. Kyoto protocol and greenhouse gases emissions trading, promotion of renewable energy sources (RES), energy efficiency.


Reisser, W. J., & Reisser, C. (2019). Energy Resources: From Science to Society. Oxford University Press.
Wiser, W. H. (2012). Energy resources: occurrence, production, conversion, use. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kirwan, D.F., editor (1987): Energy resources in science education. Pergamon.
Krischer, K., & Schönleber, K. (2015). Physics of energy conversion. In Physics of Energy Conversion. De Gruyter.
Ohta, T. (2012). Energy Technology: Sources, Systems and Frontier Conversion. Newnes.
Tripathi, S. M., & Sanjeevikumar, P. (2021). Energy Conversion Systems: An Overview. Nova Science Publishers.
Fuchs, E. F., & Masoum, M. A. (2011). Power conversion of renewable energy systems. Springer Science & Business Media.
Zweifel, P., Praktiknjo, A. in Erdmann, G. (2017). Energy economics: Theory and applications. Springer.
Schwarz, P. M. (2018). Energy economics. Routledge.
Bhattacharyya, S. C. (2019). Energy economics: concepts, issues, markets and governance. (2nd ed.) Berlin: Springer Nature.
Glachant, J. M., Joskow, P. L. in Pollitt, M. G. (ur.). (2021). Handbook on electricity markets. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Hrovatin, Nevenka, Zorić, Jelena (2011). Reforme elektrogospodarstva v EU in Sloveniji. 1. natis.
Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta.
Evans, J. in Hunt L. C. (ur.) (2009): International Handbook on the Economics of Energy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Robinson, C. (2002): Utility regulation and competition policy. Cheltenham: E. Elgar.
James, T. in Fusaro, P. C. (2006): Energy and emissions markets: collision or Convergence? Singapore: J. Wiley.
Smernice EU in poročila EU o liberalizaciji energetskih trgov.
IAE: World Energy Outlook. Zadnja izdaja.

Objectives and competences

To present the physical and economic aspects of energy production, storage and use. To introduce students to how economic theory can be used to analyse energy markets and environmental problems associated with energy activities. Critically highlight the environmental and sustainability aspects of each energy source, especially in the light of the green transition or climate neutrality.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding
Students understand the physical and technical realities associated with the generation, transmission and storage of energy and the fundamental economic concepts in the energy sector. They learn in particular about renewable energy sources and the importance and economic aspects of climate neutrality.

Students learn to apply knowledge of physics (especially mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and modern physics) and economics to analyse problems in the energy sector as well as to understand the operation and role of energy devices, e.g. photovoltaic cells.

Students understand the energy challenges of the present and the future and are empowered to play an active role in the development of future technologies and protocols that will underpin the green transition.

Transferable skills - not tied to one course
Students gain a better understanding of the interdependence between physical or technical factors and the economic aspects of the energy sector and the economy in general, giving them a broader view of the role of technical professionals in industry and society.

Learning and teaching methods

lectures, seminars, homework assignments, consultations


Completed homework assignment (written report, presentation) counts as problem-solving examination
Oral examination
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references

prof. dr. Nevenka Hrovatin in prof. dr. Jelena Zorić
FILIPPINI, Massimo, HROVATIN, Nevenka, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Effeciency and regulation of the Slovenian electricity distribution companies. Energy policy. [Print ed.], 2004, vol. 32, no. , str. 335-344. [COBISS-SI-ID 2197458]
HROVATIN, Nevenka, PITTMAN, Russell, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Organisation and reforms of the electricity sector in Slovenia. Util. policy. [Print ed.], Mar. 2009, vol. 17, no. 1, str. 134-143, doi: 10.1016/j.jup.2008.02.004. [COBISS-SI-ID 17841894]
ZORIĆ, Jelena, HROVATIN, Nevenka. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in Slovenia. Energy policy, ISSN 0301-4215. [Print ed.], Aug. 2012, vol. 47, str. 180-187, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.04.055. [COBISS-SI-ID 20874214]
FILIPPINI, Massimo, HUNT, Lester C., ZORIĆ, Jelena. Impact of energy policy instruments on the estimated level of underlying energy efficiency in the EU residential sector. Energy policy, ISSN 0301-4215. Jun. 2014, vol. 69, str. 73-81 [COBISS-SI-ID 21971430].
RIHAR, Miha, HROVATIN, Nevenka, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Household valuation of smart-home functionalities in Slovenia. Utilities policy, ISSN 0957-1787. [Print ed.], Apr. 2015, vol. 33, str. 42-53, doi: 10.1016/j.jup.2014.11.003. [COBISS-SI-ID 22405350]
HROVATIN, Nevenka, DOLŠAK, Nives, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Factors impacting investments in energy efficiency and clean technologies : empirical evidence from Slovenian manufacturing firms. Journal of cleaner production, ISSN 0959-6526. [Print ed.], 2016, vol. 127, str. 475-486, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.039. [COBISS-SI-ID 23054822]
HROVATIN, Nevenka, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Determinants of energy-efficient home retrofits in Slovenia : the role of information sources. Energy and buildings, ISSN 0378-7788. [Print ed.], Dec. 2018, vol. 180, str. 42-50, doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.09.029. [COBISS-SI-ID 24717286]
DOLŠAK, Janez, HROVATIN, Nevenka, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Factors impacting energy-efficient retrofits in the residential sector : the effectiveness of the Slovenian subsidy program. Energy and buildings, ISSN 0378-7788. [Print ed.], Dec. 2020, vol. iss. 229, art. 110501, 14 str., doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.110501. [COBISS-SI-ID 30513667]
DOLŠAK, Janez, HROVATIN, Nevenka, ZORIĆ, Jelena. Estimating the efficiency in overall energy consumption : evidence from Slovenian household-level data. Energy economics. [Print ed.]. Oct. 2022, vol. 114, article no. 103241, 13 str. ISSN 0140-9883. DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2022.106241. [COBISS-SI-ID 118963715]
HALUŽAN, Marko, VERBIČ, Miroslav, ZORIĆ, Jelena. An integrated model for electricity market coupling simulations : evidence from the European power market crossroad. Utilities policy. [Print ed.]. Dec. 2022, vol. 79, article no. 101456, 20 str. ISSN 0957-1787. DOI: 10.1016/j.jup.2022.101456. [COBISS-SI-ID 130149379]

prof. dr. Matej Švigelj
ČERNIGOJ, Uroš, ŠVIGELJ, Matej. Nepredvideni tokovi električne energije v izbranih srednjeevropskih državah in možnost razdelitve nemško-avstrijskega trgovalnega območja. V: HROVATIN, Nevenka (ur.), ŠVIGELJ, Matej (ur.), ZORIĆ, Jelena (ur.). Zbornik prispevkov, 1. znanstvena konferenca SAEE s področja energetske ekonomike, Ljubljana, 25. november 2016. Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta: SAEE - Slovensko združenje za energetsko ekonomiko, 2016, str. 36-41. [COBISS-SI-ID 23429094]
BRATOŽ, Matic, ŠVIGELJ, Matej. New natural gas contracting trends in the EU. V: 17th EBES Conference - Venice, October 15-17, 2015 : proceedings CD. Volume 1. Volume 2. Volume 3. Istanbul: Teknik Basim Matbaacilik, cop. 2015, str. 189-203. [COBISS-SI-ID 22800102]
PREDOVNIK, Anže, ŠVIGELJ, Matej. The impact of implicit electricity market coupling on the Slovenian-Austrian border on the efficiency of cross-border transmission capacity allocation and social welfare in Slovenia. Economic and business review. 2017, vol. 19, no. 2, str. 131-154, 267, ilustr. ISSN 1580-0466. DOI: 10.15458/85451.47. [COBISS-SI-ID 24233446]

doc. dr. Matej Pregelj

PREGELJ, Matej, ZORKO, Andrej, GOMILŠEK, Matjaž, KLANJŠEK, Martin, ZAHARKO, Oksana, ARČON, Denis, et al. Elementary excitation in the spin-stripe phase in quantum chains. npj quantum materials. 2019, vol. 4, str. 22-1-22-7. ISSN 2397-4648. DOI: 10.1038/s41535-019-0160-5. [COBISS-SI-ID 32330023]
PREGELJ, Matej, ZORKO, Andrej, GOMILŠEK, Matjaž, et al. Controllable broadband absorption in the mixed phase of metamagnets. Advanced functional materials. 2015, vol. 25, issue 24, str. 3634-3640. ISSN 1616-301X. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500702. [COBISS-SI-ID 28566311]
PREGELJ, Matej, ZORKO, Andrej, ZAHARKO, Oksana, NOJIRI, H., BERGER, H., CHAPON, L. C., ARČON, Denis. Spin-stripe phase in a frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain. Nature communications. 2015, vol. 6, str. 7255-1-7255-8. ISSN 2041-1723. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8255. [COBISS-SI-ID 28648487]