Enrollment in the master-level program after

completed BSc program in Meteorology or

equivalent

If the course is selected as optional,

prerequisites are completed courses

»Introduction to meteorology« and »Dynamical

Meteorology I« or courses with equivalent

contents

Passed problem-solving written examination

and seminar work is a prerequisite for the

theoretical part of the examination.

# Dynamical Meteorology II

Definition of mesoscale processes

Boussinesq approximation

Dynamics at fronts: Semi-geostrophic

equations. Cross-frontal circulation.

Frontogenetic function. Frontogenesis and Q

vector. Sawyer-Eliassen equation. Geostrophic

paradox.

Mesoscale instabilities.

Symetrical instability

Mesoscale wave motions: Non-dispersive

wave solutions. Internal gravity waves. TaylorGoldstein equation. Orographically forced

waves. Lee waves. Severe downslope storms.

Bora. Inertio-gravity waves. Kelvin-Helmholtz

instability. Topographic Rossby waves.

Mesoscale thermodynamics: Equivalent

potential temperature. Pseudo-adiabatic

processes and conditional instability. CAPE.

Development of convective cells. Entrainment

models. Vorticity and convection.

Planetary boundary layer: Reynolds

averaging. Horizontally homogeneous

turbulence. K-theory. Mixing length and mixing

layer. Models of the Ekman and Prandtl layer.

Ekman pumping. Prognostic equations for

turbulent fluxes. Similarity theory and MoninObukov length. Theoretical forms of turbulence.

Turbulent kinetic energy equation. Problem of

the closure with examples.

Fundaments of general circulation: Zonallyaveraged equations. Representation of

atmospheric variability. Lorenz energy cycle.

- J.R. Holton: An introduction to dynamic meteorology. Academic Press.
- J.E. Martin: Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Dynamics. J. Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- R.B. Stull: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, 1988, Springer.
- Izbrani strokovni članki / Selected classical papers

Simplification of the Navier-Stokes for the

descritpion of frontal processes and mesoscale

waves. Analytical solutions and associated

physical arguments for mesoscale oscillations

and instabilitis. Physical description and

mathematical representation of convection.

Systematic approach to the treatment of

planetary boundary layer in observations and

models. Basic concepts and mathematical

formulation of general circulation.

Knowledge and understanding: Understanding

of the fontal dynamics, mesoscale wave

oscillations and three-dimensional turbulence.

Application of physical laws and mathematical

tools for the representation of turbulent

processes in the planetary boundary layer. Basic

understanding of the concepts and tools used

to discuss general circulation

Application: Students learn to apply physically

based thinking and mathematical tools to

describe dynamical aspects of mesoscale wave

motions and boundary-layer processes. Basic

understadning of general circulation

Reflection: The course builds systematic

understadning of atmospheric dynamics on

mesoscale and in the boundary layer. Students

are trained to recognize and analyze

atmospheric phenomea using underlying

physical laws.

Transferable skills: Simplification of complex natural problems with many dependent,

strongly non-linearly correlated variables.

Lectures, tutorials, discussionw, homeworks

and consultations. Application to current

weather phenomena.

oral exam (theory) A mandatory student seminar based on an article related to the course subject is a condition to attend the oral exam.

written exam (problem solving) The written exam consists of two colloquia that have equal weights in the grade or an exam.

grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

- Žagar, N., M. Žagar, J. Cedilnik. G. Gregoric and J. Rakovec, 2006: Validation of mesoscale lowlevel winds obtained by dynamical downscaling of ERA40 over complex terrain. Tellus, 58A, str.

445-455. - Žagar, N., G. Skok and J. Tribbia, 2011: Climatology of the ITCZ derived from ERA Interim

reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D15103, doi:10.1029/2011JD015695. - Žagar, N., K. Terasaki and H. Tanaka, 2012: Impact of the vertical discretization of analysis data on

the estimates of atmospheric inertio-gravity energy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 2297-2307. - Žagar, N., L. Isaksen, D. Tan and J. Tribbia, 2013: Balance properties of the short-range forecast

errors in the ECMWF 4D-Var ensemble. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 139, 1229-1238. DOI:

10.1002/qj.2033