Methods of experimental condensed matter physics

Physics, Second Cycle
1. year
Hours per week – 2. semester:

Enrollment into the program.

Content (Syllabus outline)
  1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis: the SEM and its modes of operation; electron beam–specimen interactions; image formation; generation of x-rays in the SEM specimen; x-ray spectral measurements: EDS and WDS; qualitative x-ray analysis; quantitative x-ray analysis.
  2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM): the transmission electron microscope; scattering and diffraction; the TEM apparatus; diffraction patterns; the reciprocal space; diffraction from crystals; imaging in TEM.
  3. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID): superconductivity; Meissner effect; London theory; ordering of momentum; wave function of the momentum-ordered superconducting state; mechanism of superconductivity – Fröhlich theory; formation of the Cooper pair; the superconducting ground state and excited states in the BCS theory; magnetic flux quantization in a superconducting ring; critical current density in a superconductor; Josephson effect; SQUID magnetometer; operating principle of a DC SQUID system.
  1. J. Goldstein, D. Newbury, D. Joy, C. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, J. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd edition (Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New York, 2003)

  2. David B. Williams, C. Barry Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy (Plenum Press, New York, 1996).

  3. U. Mizutani, Introduction to the electron theory of metals (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001), Ch. 12 Superconductivity (pp. 334 – 382).

  4. J.C. Gallop, SQUIDs, the Josephson effects and superconducting electronics (Adam Hilger, Bristol, Philadelphia, New York, 1991).

Objectives and competences

Student gets acquainted with modern experimental methods for the research of matter.

Knowledge and understanding of measurement techniques for the determination of physical properties of condensed matter; relating measured data to physical properties of matter.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Gaining knowledge and understanding of various experimental measurement methods for the research of matter.

Ability to use different kinds of measurement equipment in experimental research laboratories.

Critical evaluation of experimental data, their accuracy and reliability.

Transferable skills
The ability of using complex equipmental equipment, data collection and analysis. Ability of assessing the accuracy of measurements.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, exercises.


Written or oral exam
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references

Janez Dolinšek


  • PhD in Physics (1987), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Thesis title: "Substitutionally-disordered incommensurate dielectrics studied by NMR", supervisor Prof. Dr. Robert Blinc);
  • MSc in Physics (1986), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics;
  • BSc in Physics (1981), University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics.

Research interests:

  • Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science (quasicrystals, complex metallic alloys, bulk metallic glasses, nanomaterials, ferroelectrics);
  • Physical properties of new materials (magnetism, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, thermal conductivity, Hall effect, specific heat);
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Experimental condensed matter physics.

Present positions:

  • Full professor of physics at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Head of the Department of Physics.
  • Senior scientist at Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Solid State Physics Department, Head of a research group, Scientific Councilor;
  • Principal investigator of many national and European research projects.


  • Jožef Stefan Institute (1982 – 1999 full employment, 1999 – ... part-time employment);
  • University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (full employment since 1999);
  • Center of excellence EN-FIST, Dunajska 56, Ljubljana (part-time employment since 2010).

Visiting positions:

  • ETH Zuerich, Switzerland;
  • University of Illinois at Chicago, USA;
  • Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany;
  • NCSR DEMOKRITOS, Institute of Materials Science, Athens, Greece;
  • University of Waterloo, Physics Department, Ontario, Canada;
  • Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Vienna University, Austria;
  • Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany;
  • Ecole des Mines, CNRS Nancy, France;
  • Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, Korea.

Membership in international institutions:

  • Vice-president of Groupement AMPERE (European Society for Magnetic Resonances, since 2010,;
  • Member of the Presidentship of the European Magnetic Resonance Society EUROMAR (treasurer, 2005 - 2010);
  • Director of the annual European School in Materials Science, Ljubljana, (2006 - 2010);
  • Editor of the Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, Daejeon, S. Korea (


  • 258 original papers in the period 1983-2014 in international journals in the fields of condensed matter physics, materials science and nuclear magnetic resonance;
  • more than 2600 pure citations in scientific literature;
  • Hirsch index = 26;
  • large number of invited lectures at international conferences, Universities and Institutes.


  • Zois prize 2010 of the Republic Slovenia for outstanding achievements in solid state physics
  • Zois recognition 2001 for important achievements in solid state physics.