Photonics 1

Physics, Second Cycle
1 year
slovenian, english
Hours per week – 1. semester:
Content (Syllabus outline)

Paraaxial wave equation: fundamental Gaussian beam and higher-order beams, transformation of Gaussian beams with optical components, propagation through multicomponent systems, optical resonators and eigen modes of EMF in resonators, losses in resonators, resonant line width.
Interaction of light with matter: spontaneous and stimulated emission, absorption, atomic spectra, spectral line width, quantum description of light interaction with a two-level system, Rabi oscillations.
Laser systems: rate equations, optical pumping and optical amplification, continuous laser operation, spectral width and quantum noise. Relaxation oscillations, pulsed operation of laser systems. Examples of lasers, applications of lasers. Stabilization of laser frequency, frequency combs, laser as time and length standard.
Optical waveguides and optical fibers: planar optical waveguide, cylindrical fibers, dispersion and losses in optical fibers, coupling of fibers and waveguides with light sources, coupling between waveguides, optical fiber detectors and sensors.
Semiconductor optical elements: Light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, semiconductor detectors and sensors, quantum dots, homodyne and heterodyne detection, noise in optical detection.
Optical communications: generation, coding and transmission of optical information, multiplexing and processing of optical signals. Excursion to an industrial laboratory.

  1. O. Svelto, "Principles of Lasers," 5th ed., Springer, Berlin, 2010.
  2. Anthony E Siegman: "Lasers," University Science Books, Sausalito 1986, (or later editions).
  3. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich: Fundamentals of Photonics, John Wiley &Sons, 1991.
  4. A. Yariv: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Objectives and competences

Students acquire basic knowledge on construction and operation of modern laser systems, optical fibers and other optical waveguides and optical detectors and sensors.

Subject specific competences:
knowledge and understanding of principles of operation of lasers, optical fibers, optical waveguides and optical detectors and sensors. Knowing their applications in photonics. Design and management of devices and processes involving laser systems, optical waveguides and optical fibers, optical detectors and sensors and integrated optical elements.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
The students gain fundamental understanding of physical phenomena relevant for generation, manipulation and processing of optical beams and optical signals. They also gain knowledge on operation principles of optical communication systems.
Know-how on modern experimental and processing techniques based on optics and lasers. Ability to design, run and upgrade different optical systems and instruments. Capability to develop new optical methods in fundamental research, industry, medicine and information and communication technologies.
Combining knowledge in optics, electromagnetic fields, quantum mechanics and solid state physics to develop fundamental understanding of complex optical phenomena and systems.
Transferable skills:
Transition from theoretical ideas to practical understanding of contemporary optical devices and their application in different fields of modern technology.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, exercises, consultations


2 midterm exams or final written exam
Oral exam
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references

ŠKRABELJ, Dejan, DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, MARINČEK, Marko. Influence of the population lens on the EM field evolution in chromium-doped laser materials. IEEE journal of quantum electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, 2010, vol. 46, no. 3, str. 361-367. [COBISS-SI-ID 23390247]
1. ŠKRABELJ, Dejan, GORJAN, Martin, DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, MARINČEK, Marko. Lensing effects in Q-switched unstable laser cavities with side-pumped Nd:YAG and ruby crystal rods. Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics, ISSN 0946-217 Tiskana izd., 2011, vol. 105, no. 4, str. 793-800, doi: 10.1007/s00340-011-4543-y. [COBISS-SI-ID 24746023]
2. NOH, JungHyun, LIANG, Hsin-Ling, DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, LAGERWALL, Jan P. F. Tunable multicolored patterns from photonic cross communication between cholesteric liquid crystal droplets. Journal of materials chemistry. C, Materials for optical and electronic devices, ISSN 2050-7526. [Print ed.], 2014, vol. 2, no. 5, str. 806-810, ilustr., doi: 10.1039/C3TC32055C. [COBISS-SI-ID 2621028].
3. YANG, Ming, WU, Qiang, CHEN, Zhandong, TANG, Baiquan, YAO, Jianghong, DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, XU, Jingjun. Generation and erasure of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on nanoparticle-covered silicon by a single laser pulse. Optics letters, ISSN 0146-9592, 2014, vol. 39, iss. 2, str. 343-346, ilustr. [COBISS-SI-ID 2633060].
4. JI, Zhichao, ZHANG, Xinzheng, ZHANG, Yujiao, WANG, Zhenhua, DREVENŠEK OLENIK, Irena, RUPP, Romano A., LI, Wei, WU, Qiang, XU, Jingjun. Electrically tunable generation of vectorial vortex beams with micro-patterned liquid crystal structures. Chinese optics letters, ISSN 1671-7694. [Engl. ed.], 2017, vol. 15, iss. 7, str. 070501-1-070501-5, ilustr., doi: 10.3788/COL201715.070501. [COBISS-SI-ID 3080548]