Radiation physics and dosimetry

Nuclear Engineering, Second Cycle
1. year
Hours per week – 1. semester:

Regular enrolement

Content (Syllabus outline)

Ionizing radiation: sources of ionizing radiation, basic quantities that describe interactions of radiation with matter (cross sections, flux, kerma, dose, exposure)
Interaction of neutral particles with matter: photon interactions (photoeffect, coherent (Rayleigh) and noncoherent (Compton) scattering, pair production, photonuclear interactions), neutron interactions, attenuation coefficients
Interactions of charged particles with matters: electron interactions (Moeller/Bhabha scattering, bremsstrahlung, annihilation), proton and ion particle interactions, energy loss, energy straggeling, single and multiple scattering, range
Radioactive decay: activity, decay constants, decay times, equilibrium states
Photon and electron sources: fluorescence, bremsstrahlung, X-ray, linear accelerators, filtration
Monte Carlo simulations: random sampling, type of sampling, Monte Carlo transport, difference between deterministic and Monte Carlo calculations, simulations of neutral and charged particle transport
Cavity theories: Bragg-Gray theory, Spencer-Attix theory, Bourlin theory, Fan theorem
Basics of dosimetry: dosimeters, absolute and relative dosimetry, measurement ranges, energy dependence, stability
Ionization chambers: free ionization chambers, cavity ionization chambers, charge and current measurements, saturation and recombination, ionization, excitation and average energy of ion pair production
Dosimetry and calibration of photon and electron beams using ionization chamgers: absolute dosimetry, calibration, standards, calibration in air, calibration in phantoms
Calibration protocols: photon beam calibration, electron beam calibration
Integral dosimetry: thermoluminescence dosimetry, flim dosimetry, chemical dosimetry, calorimetry, advantages and disadvantages of various types of dosimetry
Other radiation detectors: proportional counters, Gaiger-Mueller counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors
Microdosimetry: linear energy transfer, stochastic quantities


• Frank H. Attix, Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry, Wiley-Interscience; (September 1986), 640pp. ISBN: 0471011460
• Glen F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement, John Wiley & Sons; 3rd edition (December 1999), 802pp. ISBN: 0471073385
• Harold E. Johns and John R. Cunningham, The physics of radiology, Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd; 4th edition (December 1983), 796 pp. ISBN: 0398046697
• E.B. Podgorsak (editor), Review of Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, pp.1-532, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2004).
• E.B. Podgorsak, Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists, Springer, Heidelberg (2005), ISBN 3-540-25041-7

Objectives and competences

Students will learn basic knowledge about particle interaction with matter and dosimetry
Understanding of basic physics of particle interactions with matter. Understanding of accurate dosimetry. Ability to solve concrete dosimetry problems. Ability to connect theoretical concepts with practical examples. Critical evaluation of new knowlege in the field of dosimetry (e.g., new dosimetry protocols). Development of skills to recognize different types of interactions.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Obtaining basic knowledge of direct and indirect interaction of radiation with matter.
Understanding of the energy deposition in matter.
Knowing basic dosimetry methods using different ionization detectors.

Use of basic physics concepts for solving problems in dosimetry, radiotherapy and imaging using ionizing radiation (CT, PET).
Critical evaluation of theoretical predictions in comparison to experimental results of ionizing radiation.
Transferable skills:
Ability to collect data and explain obtained results.
Ability to communicate with experts from similar fields (engineering, medical fields).

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, problem classes, homework, consultations.


2 tests with problem solving, written exam (problem solving)
oral exam (questions from lectures)
Marks: 5 (not passed), 6-10 (passed) (according to the UL rules).

Lecturer's references

" Marko Mikuž
• STUDEN, Andrej, CINDRO, Vladimir, GROŠIČAR, Borut, GRKOVSKI, Milan, MIKUŽ, Marko, ŽONTAR, Dejan. Silicon detectors for combined MRPET and MRSPECT imaging. Nucl. instrum, methods phys res., Sect. A, Accel.. [Print ed.], 2013, vol. 702, str. 88-90.
• CLINTHORNE, Neal, GRKOVSKI, Milan, GROŠIČAR, Borut, MIKUŽ, Marko, STUDEN, Andrej, ŽONTAR, Dejan. Silicon as an unconventional detector in positron emission tomography. Nucl. instrum, methods phys res., Sect. A, Accel.. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 699, str. 216-220.
• AAD, G., CINDRO, Vladimir, DOLENC, Irena, FILIPČIČ, Andrej, FRATINA, Saša, GORIŠEK, Andrej, KERŠEVAN, Borut Paul, KRAMBERGER, Gregor, MAČEK, Boštjan, MANDIĆ, Igor, MIJOVIĆ, Liza, MIKUŽ, Marko, TYKHONOV, Andrii. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the diphoton decay channel with 4.9fbsup of pp collision data at [square root] s=7TeV with ATLAS. Phys. rev. lett.. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 108, no. 11, str. 111803-1-111803-19
Tomaž Podobnik
• T. Podobnik, T. Živko, On probabilistic Parametric Inference, Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 142, str. 3152–3166
• ABDALLAH, J., BRAČKO, Marko, GOLOB, Boštjan, KERNEL, Gabrijel, KERŠEVAN, Borut Paul, PODOBNIK, Tomaž, ZAVRTANIK, Danilo. Search for single top quark production via contact interactions at LEP2. The European physical journal. C, 2011, vol. 71, no. 2, str. 1555-1-1555-13.
• ABDALLAH, J., BRAČKO, Marko, GOLOB, Boštjan, KERNEL, Gabrijel, KERŠEVAN, Borut Paul, PODOBNIK, Tomaž, ZAVRTANIK, Danilo. Measurements of CP-conserving trilinear gauge boson couplings WWV (V [equivalent] [gamma], Z) in e[sup]+ e[sup]- collisions at LEP2. The European physical journal. C, Mar. 2010, vol. 66, issue 1/2, str. 35-56