Experimental nuclear and particle physics

2021/2022
Programme:
Medical Physics, Second Cycle
Year:
1 year
Semester:
first
Kind:
mandatory
ECTS:
6
Language:
slovenian
Hours per week – 1. semester:
Lectures
2
Seminar
0
Tutorial
1
Lab
0
Prerequisites

Regular enrolement

Content (Syllabus outline)

GENERAL PART
1 Passage of charged particles and photons through matter. Average energy loss of heavy charged particles (Bethe-Bloch formula). Range. Čerenkov radiation. Passage of electrons through matter. Coulomb multiple scattering. Energy straggling (thick and thin absorbers, Landau distribution). Interaction of photons (photoelectric effect, Compton effect, pair production) .
2. Particle identification. Measurement of dE/ dx at low energies. Measurement of time of flight. Multiple measurements of specific ionization. Čerenkov counters (threshold detector, Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter - RICH ). Transition radiation. Detection of neutrons and neutrinos .
3 Measuring energy. Low energy methods for the determination of energies of charged particles, photons and neutrons. Fano factor . Electromagnetic calorimeters. Hadron calorimeters. Calibration and control of calorimeters . Atmosphere as a calorimeter .
SPECIAL SECTION
1 Solid-state detectors. Basic features of semiconductor detectors . Intrinsic and compensated semiconductors. The diode as a radiation detector. Position-sensitive silicon detectors (construction and use) .
2 Scintillation detectors. asic characteristics. Organic scintillators ( crystals, liquids , plastic). Inorganic crystals. Gases and glass. Yielda for the various types of radiation. Linearity.
3 Ionization detectors. Ionization mechanism and transport of ions and electrons in gases . Cylindrical proportional counter. Multiwire proportional counters, read-out, signal efficiency. Drift chamber. Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Liquid ionization detectors .
4 Electronic signal processing. Amplifiers with transistors. Discriminator. Preamps (voltage, current and charge sensitive; performance, feedback). Linear amplifier with feedback. Pulse shaping (with RC, with a delay line). Pole-zero cancelation. Bseline restoration. Sources of noise, impact of pulse-shaping on the signal-to- noise ratio.
5 Elements of transport for charged particle beams. Quadrupole lenses (linear transformation, doublet, effective length). Phase space invariance. Sector magnet with a homogeneous field. Beam transport in the beam elipse description (matrices and the envelope function).

Readings

• W.R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1986.
• T. Ferbel (editor), Experimental Techniques in High-Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics, 2nd Edition, World Scientific 1991.
• F. Sauli (editor), Instrumentation in High Energy Physics, World Scientific 1992.
• K. Kleinknecht, Detectors for Particle Radiation, Cambridge University Press 1987.
• H. Wiedermann, Particle Accelerator Physics, Springer-Verlag 1993.
• G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, J. Wiley, New York 1979 (tudi novejša izdaja).
• K.G. Steffen, High Energy Beam Optics, Interscience Publishers 1996.

Objectives and competences

Students learn about the basic experimental methods of nuclear and particle physics.
Subject-specific competencies: Knowledge and understanding of the interaction of elementary particles with materials, formation and detection of electrical signals, their treatment and acquisition. Knowledge of methods of measurements of energy and determination of particle identity. Ability to design an experimental apparatus and to work with it.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Acquire practical knowledge in various fields of experimental nuclear physics and elementary particle and astrophysics.
Application:
Ability to work with complex experimental equipment. Understanding critical parameters in experiments in the field of nuclear physics and elementary particle and astrophysics, ability to plan new measurements.
Reflection:
A critical assessment of an experimental apparatus, its accuracy and reliability.
Transferable skills:
Ability to work on a complex apparatus, data acquisition, and its collection and analysis. Ability to determine the accuracy of the measurement.

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, problem classes, homework, consultations.

Assessment

2 tests with problem solving, written exam (problem solving)
Oral exam (questions from lectures)
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)

Lecturer's references
  1. I. Adachi et al. [Belle Collaboration], Measurement of B- tau- nu with a Hadronic Tagging Method Using the Full Data Sample of Belle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 (2013) 131801
  2. I. Adachi et al., Precise measurement of the CP violation parameter sin2phi_1 in B0 c c K0 decays, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 171802
  3. P. Križan, Overview of particle identification techniques, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A706 (2013) 48.