Experimental medical physics

2021/2022
Programme:
Medical Physics, Second Cycle
Year:
2 year
Semester:
first
Kind:
mandatory
ECTS:
6
Language:
slovenian
Hours per week – 1. semester:
Lectures
0
Seminar
1
Tutorial
3
Lab
0
Prerequisites

Regular enrolement

Content (Syllabus outline)

Lab exercises in radiotherapy
1 Irradiating apparatus with a radioactive 60Co source: measurements of the parameters of radiation fields with an electrometer, a water phantom and an ionization cell using a dosimetric protocol .
2 Linear accelerator (photons): measurement of parameters of the photon radiotherapy fields with an electrometer, a water phantom and an ionization cell using a dosimetric protocol
3 Linear Accelerator (electrons): measurement of parameters of the electron radiation field with an electrometer, a water phantom and an ionization cell using a dosimetric protocol.
4 Planning of the radiation therapy of the breast using a computerized planning system: preparation of the irradiation plan, setting up the irradiation field, calculation of the irradiation time and an optimization of the plan with regard to the homogeneity or inhomogeneity of the radiation dose to the breast.
5 Irradiation treatment time by using one of radiation fields: Calculation of radiation time for a radiation field taking into account the prescribed parameters (size of radiation fields , the depth, the energy distribution of the absorbed dose in the tissue).
Exercises in diagnostic radiology
6 Parameters of the quality of a diagnostic apparatus: radiation leakage of the housing, checking the size of the focal point, congruence, centering of the beam, repeatability, linearity, specific exposure dose, automatic exposure control
7 Quality parameters of an x-ray equipment for computed tomography
8 Patient dosimetry : measurement of skin entrance dose, dose measurements, Monte Carlo simulation of the dose received, determination of diagnostic reference levels

Exercises in nuclear medicine
9 Operating parameters of gamma cameras: checking the energy and spatial resolution, uniformity, sensitivity, spatial linearity, leak shield
10 Radiopharmacy: isotope, checking the purity of the isotope and the measured activity, quality control of the calibrators, diagnostic dose accuracy, reproducibility and linearity
11 Cyclotron and positron emission tomography (PET) devices
Exercises in medical physics and instrumentation
12 Internal Dosimetry: delivery of radioactive substances, calculation of dose to members of the public and for a patient during a typical investigation in nuclear medicine, modeling
13 The use of measuring equipment: ionization chambers, proportional chamber, Geiger Muller counters, scintillators, photomultiplier tubes, photodiodes
14 Instrumentation: data acquisition systems, data processing.

Readings

• Frank H. Attix, Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry, Wiley-Interscience; (September 1986), 640pp. ISBN: 0471011460
• Glen F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement, John Wiley & Sons; 3rd edition (December 1999), 802pp. ISBN: 0471073385
• P. Sprawls, Physical Principles of Medical Imaging, Medical Physics Publishing, (1993), 656pp, ISBN 0-944838-54-5
• S.R. Cherry, J. A. Sorenson, M.E. Phelps, Physics in Nuclear Medicine, Saunders, Elsevier Science, 3rd ed (2003) 523pp, ISBN 072168341X
• J. Van Dyk (editor), The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology, Medical Physics Publishing (1999) 824 pp ISBN 0944838383
• H. Cember, Introduction to Health Physics, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd edition (1996), 731 pp, ISBN 0071054618

Objectives and competences

Students learn about basic experimental methods of medical physics.
Subject-specific competencies: Knowledge, understanding and practical hands-on experience in the field of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, medical physics, radiation protection, and instrumentation. Most of the lab exercises are carried out at the Institute of Oncology, the University clinic and at the J. Stefan Institute

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Acquire practical knowledge in the fields of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, medical physics, radiation protection, and instrumentation.
Application:
Ability to work with complex experimental equipment. Understanding critical parameters in practical work and in experimentation in the field radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology, medical physics, radiation protection, and instrumentation, ability to plan new measurements.
Reflection:
A critical assessment of an experimental apparatus, its accuracy and reliability.
Transferable skills:
Ability to work on a complex apparatus, data acquisition, and its collection and analysis. Ability to determine the accuracy of the measurement. Ability to communicate with experts in related fields (electrical and machine engineers, medical doctors).

Learning and teaching methods

Lectures, laboratory excercises, analysis of measurements.

Assessment

Reports on 9 lab excercises.
grading: 5 (fail), 6-10 (pass) (according to the Statute of UL)